Other European countries, including Sweden in 1891, Denmark in 1892, France in 1910, and Switzerland in 1912, subsidized the mutual benefit societies that workers formed among themselves.
So for a very long time, other countries have had some form of universal health care or at least the beginnings of it.
The NBER's Business Cycle Dating Committee maintains a chronology of the U. A recession is a period between a peak and a trough, and an expansion is a period between a trough and a peak.
The chronology comprises alternating dates of peaks and troughs in economic activity.
The did have some voluntary funds that provided for their members in the case of sickness or death, but there were no legislative or public programs during the late 19th or early 20th century.
The evolution of these efforts and the reasons for their failure make for an intriguing lesson in American history, ideology, and character.
However unlike European countries, there was not powerful working class support for broad social insurance in the The labor and socialist parties’ support for health insurance or sickness funds and benefits programs was much more fragmented than in Europe.
Therefore the first proposals for health insurance in the did not come into political debate under anti-socialist sponsorship as they had in Europe.
The most recent example of such a judgment that was less than obvious was in 1980-1982, when the Committee determined that the contraction that began in 1981 was not a continuation of the one that began in 1980, but rather a separate full recession.
The Committee does not have a fixed definition of economic activity.
It examines and compares the behavior of various measures of broad activity: real GDP measured on the product and income sides, economy-wide employment, and real income.